When Isaac Newton formulated his Principia, he described the motion of objects and how objects interact to lead to his theory of gravitation. So what are objects?
Objects are independent self enclosed clumps of matter defined by a closed 3D surface in 3D space. Objects are perceived because there is space between them.
Hence Newton’s Law(s) apply to the motion of objects (bodies).
But Newton’s Laws cannot apply internally to a heterogenous object such as a layered sphere comprised of layers of different density since none of these internal layers can move independently to or from the others. For example a human being is structurally a skeleton surrounded by soft tissue covered by a 3D skin. There is no gravitational attraction between the flesh and the skeleton, for example.
Crucial to this argument is that I have defined what gravity is not, thus leaving an almost infinite other possibilities of what it could be.
This is termed ‘negative’ thinking in which one slowly identifies what something is by establishing what it is not.
Positive thinking is the opposite and determines what a thing is, and thus automaticaly excluding any alternative descriptions.
Negative thinking, in this sense, is the scientific method, while positivism is the operation of the religious mind.
Science becomes problematical when religious minds involved themselves with the scientific method.
Drilling a geophysical anomaly and discovering that the interpretation is false (see previous posts) is negative thinking in the sense that we have determined that the anomaly, in the case of the gravity anomaly, is not what was interpreted. There therefore remain many alternative solutions to the anomaly to be discovered.
The religious mind will, in this case, assert that the geophysical anomaly is caused by a 5000m by 400m layer of hematite ore without testing it with a drill hole. This is the logical fallacy of arguing from authority.
You should therefore be able to recognise other religious pronouncements involving the misuse of the scientific method, and the language of science. It is very common in cultures that are faith-based.